Environmental Policy in Modern Russia
Environmental policy represents the entire range of measures, utilized to supply the long term environmental safety with consideration of economic opportunities and social demands of the society.
Two areas could be outlined within the environmental policy: 1) global - i.e. development of international legal, political and external economic actions that take into consideration environmental limitations of socio-economic development, available global natural resources and their distribution among different countries; 2) state - socio-economic actions, built with consideration of all benefits and shortcomings, related to the state of environment of the territory, water area, air space of the country and the natural resources this country contains.
At present yet another two areas or better yet environmental policy levels are developing - territorial (including municipal) and local.
Territorial environmental policy could also be considered as interregional (e.g. Far East policy, North policy, Moscow region policy etc.) and interconnected with the territories within the particular subject of Russian Federation (e.g. environmental policy in the Black Sea resort zone of Krasnodar area) or as restricted by the limits of particular cities and towns.
Municipal environmental policy in our country is still in its infancy and remains the non-government institution, since local authorities do not belong to State machinary according to Russian laws. Only in some cities, e.g. Moscow and St-Petersburg, which have the status of RF subjects, this policy is realized at the state level.
Local environmental policy is carried out by particular businesses (firms). International and Russian standards on environmental management of ISO 14000 determine the environmental policy as statement of the firm regarding its objectives and goals, related to its general environmental efficiency. However, these standards in Russia are only recommendatory in nature. The local environmental policy of Russian business today is entirely dependent of state and is governed by the demands of the national environmental legislation, which, in turn, is greatly influenced by the international recommendations.
According to article 71 of the Constitution, Russian Federation manages the federal policy and federal programs related to environmental issues in Russia, while article 114 states that Russian government insures the united state environmental policy. Thus, the Russian legislature clearly indicates the availability of "federal environmental policy".
It is rather rational to view the global environmental policy as an independent network of interrelated legal, economic and organizational tools, developed by the world community and its members in order to utilize the environmental component as a prerequisite for sustainable development.
During the entire 20 century, unrelated laws and legislative procedures were developed in order to cope with the appearance of diverse environmental issues. However, these were weakly correlated and did not represent the integral system of preventive and regulating measures. However, these were weakly interrelated and did not represent the integral system of preventive and regulating measures.
Only during the last 25 years of the 20th century it became clear, that one would be required to deal not with the particular constituents of the historically established environment-management style of the country, but it is necessary to change basic governing principles of this style taking into consideration the responsibility for environment conservation and stability of the biosphere. The events of the last decade have shown, that once on the way to reformations, the World community is facing the grandiose task, not seen previously in the history of Humankind.
Non-completed reforms lead to a number of serious problems, related coordination of actions between different countries, inadequate readiness of population in most countries to accept the rather obscure economic sacrifices aimed at often ambiguous "environmental" future, interdisciplinary controversies, private interests of the established market economy and numerous other problems of the transitional period. In such situation, it is obligatory to clearly envision the final "project" of reconstruction of the world's economy at least to provide it with global environmental safety. Such project is still lacking and is still in its "developmental" stage, although the "building" of the new society is under way. Let us try to review the integral structure of environmental policy starting with its original background.
Our paper is aimed at such analysis, carried out mainly using Russia as an example, which does reflect well the development of the environmental consciousness in developed countries of the world.
We present a generalized view of the developing system
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