Gross industrial production of Russia during the last 100 years
Industrial production of Russia as the leading field of economic development is characterized by number of figures, where the production volumes and the production growth rate are the most important.
The amount of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Russia has increased on average almost 36,7-fold during last 100 years (1900–2000). With the increase of comparable number of workers from 1,9 to 13,1 million people, i.e. 6,9-fold, GDP increased in 5,4 times per single worker, and in 17,4 time per one inhabitant of the country (the Russian population increased in 2,1 times, from 67,4 million people in 1897 to 144,8 million people in 2000).
The national wealth of Russia in XX century increased 12-fold, during XIX century – 6,3-fold, including the last 1/3 of XIX century (1865–1899) – 2-fold, and between two centuries (1881–1914) – even 3,48-fold.
The amplitude of changes of annual increments in Russia during last 100 years was within the limits from –6% to +15%, and by decades from – 3,7% (1990-s) to 14,5% (1940-s).
The highest increase of the GDP in Russia was observed during 1931–1940 (increase per 10 years – 218,9%, average annual increase –14,5%), while the smallest increase – during 1921–1930 (increase just for 10–9,8%, annual average increase – 0,9%). During 1911–1920, due to the war 1914–1918 and the revolution of 1917, Russia experienced a decrease in the total volume of GDP by 33,3%, which continued during six years (1915–1920). During 1942–1943, as a result of devastation, caused by the war, the GDP decreased by 34,1%.
During 1991–2000 (for the first time in Russian history), there was a decrease in GDP during the entire decade, with not only annual decrease in production volumes, but also absolute decrease (total decrease by 31,8%). National economy was on the verge of de–industrialization.
In the beginning of XX century, lacking the leading role in the development of industrial production in general, Russia played a significant role in some fields (mining industry, national crafts, building materials, military engineering and engineering industry).
In 1900 Russia mined 10,4 million tons of oil, 12,0 million tons of coal, 5,5 million tons of iron ore, produced 2,5 million tons of cast iron, 2,3 million tons of steel, 1,9 million tons of rolled metal, 8200 tons of copper, 38,8 tons of gold and 5,1 tons of platinum, 1100 steam locomotives and 33300 cars, 21,5 million tons of grain, 1,2 million tons of sugar. Based on these and other 27 indices Russia stayed among three of the most industrial counties in the world. By the total technical and economic development Russia was placed in the fifth place in the world, by the volume of national wealth – 60,3 billion gold rubles – it was also in the fifth place.
During WW I 1914–1917 Russian index of industrial production decreased, with greater development observed in certain branches (military engineering, food production, import).
With the end of the Civil War, a certain revival of production was observed. During 1921–1923 production volumes doubled, fuel crisis was handled, transport system got organized, normal trading relationships between rural areas and cities were reestablished. In 1926 industry exceeded the pre-war level by 8%, electricity production increased by 80%, the devastated industrial management was rebuilt, and the foundations for industrialization of the country were laid down.
Starting from the first five–year plan (1928/29) and prior to perestroyka the growth of the industrial potential in Russia had been accompanied by high and stable growth rates.
Before WWII, as a result of successfully completing of its first five year plans, Russia was in the first place in Europe and in the 2d place in the world by its output volume.
In 1940 comparing to 1913 the gross industrial production increased by 7,7 times, electricity production– by 24 times, oil mining– by 3 times, cast iron production – by 3,5 times, steel – by 4,3 times, production of new types of machines – by 35 times, including metal cutting machines – by 32 times.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945) the country lost 30% of its industrial potential. The Nazis destroyed more than 32 000 industrial enterprises (including enterprises that putted out 60% of steel, 70% of coal and 40% of oil and gas pre–war production).
In 1946, the Russian industry reached the pre-war level of production (1940), and in 1948 exceeded it by 18%, an in 1950 – by 73%.
Number of people, occupied in Russian industry in 1970 equaled in 20,2 million. During the years of reforms, the number of people working in the Russian industry decreased from 20,9 to 13,1 million people. While the number of enterprises (in 1970 – 28500) increased from 26900 to 159000, with obvious decrease in the number of people of a single enterprise from 780 to 82 persons. Parameters of qualification of
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