The concept of sustainable development in development
The expression “sustainable development of the mankind” became an appropriate synthesis of three humanistic components of the evolution of the World Community in the second half of the XX century: 1) pacifism; 2) democratization; 3) environmental revolution in the world outlook and economics. The natural wish of people to prevent the horror of WWII found its implementation in the establishment of the United Nations Organization, the main task of which is to stop international conflicts. The UNO became involved in monitoring the activities of two confronting ideological social systems, manifested in military, economic and ideological rivalry. Creation of nuclear weapon has not only transformed the regular concepts of war strategies, but also introduced into a peaceful life an unprecedented threat of radioactive contamination of people and ecosystems as a result of nuclear tests. Peace keeping became an urgent task of the mankind, while peaceful coexistence – a precursor of the concept of sustainable development. During 1950–s the international negotiating process went through an impressive path. Methods and rules were perfected, etiquette refined, the role of the developing countries, having equal voting right in the UNO, increased. More flexible arguments and other types of opponent manipulation were replacing former brutal–force solutions. The world had become more open by that time, due to the development of radio, tourism and business exchanges, education level of people of the confronting nations. Thus, the controversy between two economic systems became more and more transformed into providing with social advantages of people.
Standard of living, social welfare, democratic rights, education and culture, scientific progress became important arguments of ideological confrontation. The socialist camp accused the West of marauding market economyics, that did not consider interests of workers, robbing the environment in favor of immediate profit. Capitalists accused the totalitarian content of the Communist regime, usurpation of freedom and rights of the citizens. These aspects were supposed to have been included into the sphere of international negotiation process. Stability of the World Community started to be more often considered through elimination of social confrontation, capable of destroying the stability from inside.
The after–war economic boom, contributing to the growth of standard of living of population, led to deterioration of the environment, which was the main reason for increased attention to environmental issues. Simultaneously, a systemic paradigm, that became widely accepted during 1960–s, provided a new look at environmental issues through the integrity of biosphere. The threat of military confrontation was augmented by possibility of environmental apocalypses. The world stability started to be seen as the triune entity: peaceful coexistence + social guarantees to population + joint efforts of the mankind to prevent the environmental catastrophe. The decade of 1970–s was governed by these principles. International collaboration kept broadening with each decade after the end of WWII, that was reflected in the number of signed agreements and treaties on environmental security. The number of “green” NGO was increasing.
During 1980–s, when, in fact, the concept of “sustainable development” appeared, the search for resolve of the conflict between economic stability and environmental well–being was initiated. Long time ago professionals were aware of the fact, that environmental problems are raised by impudent economics, more precisely by its overestimated qualification in the system of civilization values. A new experience acquired during the oil crisis of 1970–s, allowed to envision the solutions of environmental problems as a prospective engine of further economic development. The concept of sustainable development of the mankind, announced in 1992 in Rio–de–Janeiro, called for the development of methods of a certain symbiosis between the environmental science and economy, using well established routines of international regulation.
However, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, which happened exactly during that time, added significant changes to further events. The strategic balance in geopolitics was broken. The redistribution of the spheres of influence, where the main efforts of the world community became concentrated, became the priority. Recommendations of the Conference on Environmental and Development were accomplished clearly unsatisfactory. By the beginning of 1990–s the main agenda issue was the solution to global environmental problems (climate changes, biological diversity conservation). However, at present the progress in this direction became too insignificant, although local environmental problems are efficiently solving by rich countries. A new field in governmental management – environmental politics (or environmental management) very
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