Natural Resources Management in Russia From the Statistical Point of Views (Trials of Retrospective Analysis)
At least four significant circumstances put apart current situation in natural resources use from what used to be in this field 9–10 years ago.
First of all, the abrupt decrease of business pressure on the environment at the time of crushing economy.
Secondly, the relative displacement of natural resources usage towards consumption of non-renewable part of national wealth.
Also, the general increasing volume of the natural resources usage in economics in a number of figures.
At last, the increase of disorganizing trends in the natural resources field.
The extraction of main kinds of minerals (except natural gas and diamonds) decreased in Russia abruptly and was 50–85 % in 1999, and even 10–30 % for some minerals comparing to the beginning of 90-s.
At the same time the displacement of real economic activity toward the position of just natural resources usage was happening with priorities given to non-renewable resources. With general fall in the industrial production during 1991–1999 down to 50 %, the production in extractive industries decreased only in 30–33 %, comparing to that in the beginning of 90-s.
The volume of production in gas and oil industries, coal industry, ferrous and – non-ferrous metallurgy decreased on average in 10–40 %. The amount of production in forest, wood processing, cellulose and paper industry and fishery decreased more significantly – in 50–57 %. The volume of production in agricultural field, where the main resource (soil) is numerously used, decreased at the same period approximately in 42 %, which is also relatively more, than in many leading fields of mineral resource industry.
During last few years the proportion of various mediating services (such as trading, financial-credit, informational, etc.) increased abruptly in GDP. The main target for such services in one or another way became the natural resources field – the dominant branch of real modern Russian economy. The leased funds, obtained here, are used many times and are, in fact, the means for survival of various mediating structures, as well as the foundation for building the respective portion of GDP in the field of services.
With current state of Russian economy its reconstruction to achieve the volume of GDP that was at the end of 80-s – beginning of 90-s even with most optimistic forecast will lead to much greater natural resources usage, environmental deterioration and pollution that were observed previously.
At present the natural resource usage in Russia in general and environmental protection in particular is in deep crisis, just like all social and economic life. The level of state regulation here is obviously not efficient to solve current problems. To change the current negative trends is the vital objective for natural resources management in our country. This task is necessary to fulfill with close collaboration general, strategic and pivotal improvement of economy management in Russian Federation, considering first of all the historical experience and special features in industrial development of the country (including the period before the beginning of 90-s). The progress achieved in others, most developed countries of the world, should also be considered.
The illusion of many old hopes, the absolutization of private property capital goods (including natural resources) in particular, and privatization as self-sufficient panacea of rational nature management, become more obvious and has to change into pragmatic state approach respectful for society. Sudden and permanent breaking natural resource tax system up into smaller units becomes non-effective the same as uncontrollable growth of state plan indicators in the middle of 80-s.
Fig. 8–1. Calculated wood cutting area and its use in Russian Federation.
Fig. 8–2. Deployment of aquatic safety facilities in Russian Federation.
1. The scale of environmental impact decrease in Russia during 1990 -1999.
2. The proportion of natural resources in GDP of various fields and activities.
3. The losses from forest fires in Russian Federation.
4. Yields of the main agricultural crops in Russia (in all categories of farms).
5. The degree of wear for capital equipment by some branches of economy of Russian Federation.
6. Export of wastes and crap ferrous metals from Russian Federation.
7. Export of wastes and crap non-ferrous metals from Russian Federation.
8. Indicators of innovation activity in the field of waste recycling (in current prices).
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