Mineral-natural Resources in the Development of Russian Economy
Mineral-natural resources play a pivotal role among natural resources of Russia. These resources serve as important potential for the country's economy. The stable development of domestic processing industry based on mining industries is the main asset of turning Russia into leading and powerful country with high level of life for the majority of population. The stable development related to mineral-natural resources is the guaranteed security of country's economy by creating the steady mineral-natural basis to satisfy current and future needs of Russian economy taking into account environmental, social, demographic, defensive and other factors. The total value of mineral-natural resources of Russia by shown and estimated reserves of all kinds of minerals is at least 28 trillion US dollars. The estimation of their earning capacity is, however, only 1,5 trillion US dollars. By the reserves of nickel and natural gas (33 % of world reserves) the Russia stays on first place in the world. By oil reserves – on second place after Saudi Arabia, by coal –on third place after USA and China, by gold – on third place after South Africa and USA etc. Besides direct presence of wide spectrum of important kinds of minerals, this branch of economy possesses quite developed mining and processing infrastructure and powerful scientific and technological potential.
The Russian economy has to have the economic growth rate as 4–6 %, and this can be accomplishes due to mining, processing and usage of mineral-natural resources.
Development of mining industry has to be regulated by state using strictly market procedures. The state has to contribute by all means to the development of processing industry on the basis of mining industry. The state of main funds and technologies utilized in the mining industry of the country with enormous reserves of natural resources is such, that they cannot provide additional significant financial earnings to the country's budget for large state investments into its own processing industry.
Due to low proportion of labor in cost price of extracted natural resources and relatively high price of working place in extractive industries the natural resources can not be the reserve for increased life level for the majority of Russian population. The reconstruction of domestic processing industry has to be on the basis of multi-sided integration with mining industry. The most promising form of such integration should become the creation of large financial-industrial groups – inter-industry corporations.
The main priorities of the state while creating inter-industrial financial groups should consider:
• stable accreditation of the country with mineral resources and their products;
• the more effectual use of mineral-natural resources and creation of necessary conditions for transfer of the economy to resource saving way of development;
• further development of raw minerals base;
• support and increase of export potential of the country, its change toward the sales of processed materials and industrial products;
• development of processing industry and its export potential etc.
Even in developed countries, the market mechanism does not assure solutions for such important issues as use of natural resources, nature conservancy wildlife management and stable economic security. This was stressed in the UN conference dedicated to environment and development, that took place in 1992. In Russia, consequently, it is necessary to use such method of rational nature management, as well developed amalgamation of market technologies of self regulation and support of the rational use of natural resources and resource savings.
Regardless of who owns the natural and mineral resources, the state has the right to regulate the process of their utilization. This should be done to consider interests of society and single owners, whose interests can collide, and while developing the compromising solutions the state help is needed.
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