Foreword To the Annual - 1999
Environmental science has made its contribution into human history not only with the knowledge of ecosystems’ structures, population dynamics and reaction of organisms to changes of environmental factors. Researching the unfavorable consequences of economic activities on different plants, animals and humans environmental scientists look for the answers to the questions going far beyond biological borders. What is the danger of environmental pollution and how to avoid it?
Where does exhaustion of non-renewable resources, such as oil, gas, metallic ores lead us to? What measures should be taken to provide inexhaustible usage of renewable resources: water, forests, agricultural lands? What methods of making the economic management optimum are the most efficient: technological, economic or social?
Environmental and natural sciences introduced the notion of sustainability of natural ecosystems, integrity and vulnerability of biosphere, global biological cycle and energy stream in the framework of mankinds’ normal way of development.
Following geography environmental sciences determined the borders of possible growth of population not only in an extensive sense – covering the vast territories of the planet, but intensive as well, i.e. making impact the main biosphere processes. Environmental science made the mankind think of the future generations development and its’ responsibility in general.
Great humanists, stepping over every day routine, were thinking global categories, appealing to the triumph of fairness and kindness in human society. Due to them eventually equality gained victory over slavery and discrimination, democracy – over dictatorship, peaceful coexistence - over military solution of contradictions. Environmental sciences pushed the mankind for another step in its development for determination of the modern world basis in a more sophisticated way. It persuaded the mankind not only to provide the right for life itself, the right of nations to preserve their cultural values, but also to take responsibility in the face of generations to come in terms of guarding the nature and conservation of its natural resources.
Environmental sciences laid the basis for a new world outlook, which can’t confine itself to the narrow borders of private interests of political groupings, social strata, nations or states.
The focus categories of this global thinking are:
1. Sustainable biosphere and within the given stage – climate and biological diversity.
2. Rational usage of natural resources.
3. Detailed planning of economic activities aiming at forthcoming ecological security.
4. Wide involvement of all citizens to self-governing based on responsibility and self-limitation of consumption instincts.
5. Unanimity and supremacy of the World community with simultaneous equality of all its subjects
Our Annual series presents the analysis of the current events in Russia through the prism of environmental outlook. That’s why in this volume as well as in the first one the issues of status and perspectives of the natural resources usage in Russia taking into consideration the worlds’ trends are prevailing. We cover also economic factors of environmental policy in our country, level of social activities as well as global processes in biosphere and humanity.
Environmental outlook allow)us the profound understanding of current development and of the future planning. In conditions of limited space and inevitable deficit of raw materials the mankind has to choose the strategy of self-limitation and good-neighbour relations. Otherwise we face the inevitability of endless struggle for the redistribution of natural wealth in wars and violation over the growing majority of the mankind.
Seven years after the world UNO conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro the opposition of the appearing environmental outlook to the traditional ideologies became obvious. Being adopted at the conference the profound document – “The agenda for the XXI century” – represents the program which the mankind is not ready yet to carry out.
In front of us this year following Russia’s perestroika the reforms of a new World order have been now in progress. Economic unification of Europe introducing the common currency has changed the financial balance in the world. Poland, Hungary, Czech joining NATO and a willingness of some other Eastern European countries to follow their example is changing military balance. Aggressive military actions of the US in Iraq and especially of NATO in Yugoslavia have broken the fundamental basis balance of peaceful coexistence – the policy which in practice proved its true gigantic constructive possibilities in the latest decade.
Actions of NATO contradict to the UNO Charter.
The group of economically and military strong countries set off themselves against the rest of the world.
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