Protection of wild natural resources in Russia
The main theoretical postulate of nature conservation is the idea of double uncertainty.
It states that both our impact on biosphere resulting in ecosystem changes and the effects of these changes on humans as a biological species have equally unpredictable results. Therefore, available methods of biodiversity conservation have only "protective" character, limiting to some degree human activity for the sake of other species conservation.
All restrictive conservation measures can be divided into two groups – the functional and territorial. The former involves selection of the group of the most threatened species (or less often, natural ecosystems) and introduces restrictions on their use or potential damage.
The latter includes creating of refuges- protected natural territories, where human activity is totally prohibited or restricted.
The Soviet Union entered perestroika with one of the efficient system of protected natural territories in the world. Its basis is composed of zapovedniks, the territories completely excluded from human economic activity.
Zapovedniks formed some a kind of frame supporting more or less developed network of zakazniks and natural monuments. After the breakdown of the Soviet Union, Russia managed to preserve the system of zapovedniks. Despite financial difficulties, variant reading of legislative documents, and ambitions of regional authorities, zapovedniks were preserved as a single network, subordinate to a common center at the federal level. The number and area of zapovedniks are increasing and their legal status has been regulated legislatively. Regional networks of protected natural territories - zakazniks -and natural monuments of regional subordination – are still in more difficult situation.
Current property redistribution in Russia affected wild nature resources to a lesser degree than all previous reforms did. The main source of current capital formation is the redistribution of monetary funds and control over the most profitable branches of economy. Against the background of money circulating in the fuel and energetic industry or in production and sale of non-ferrous metals, monetary gains from the use of wild nature resources (both legal and openly illegal) are almost negligible.
Traditional poaching such as illegal game hunting, increased insignificantly, but new it was supplemented by types of poaching that have much more dangerous consequences. Directed pursuit of rare species of animals and plants has begun. Species written in the international Red Data Book, in the Red Data Books of the USSR and Russia became poaching objects.
Generally, the situation is in the state of unstable equilibrium that may be disturbed by any new legal act, mainly in the area of agrarian law and tax legislation, because interests far remote from environmental problems play a major role in creation and editing of these legislative documents.
Analytical book 2008
Analytical book 2004
Analytical book 2003
Analytical book 2002
Analytical book 2001
Analytical book 2000
Analytical book 1999
Analytical book 1998