Energetic resources. Oil and natural gas. The passing century
The passing century was the century of oil and natural gas. Production and consumption of these resources that replaced wood and coal in the beginning of the century, increases every year. Maximum of the world oil production was in 1979 (3109 million ton). In 1994 3066 million-ton was produced in the world. Total world natural gas production increases by 3-4 times every twenty years starting with the early century. In 1993 total oil production was 2663.4 billion m
3. Russia is one of the largest oil and gas producing countries. In 1996 301 million ton of oil and 575 billion m3 of natural gas was produced in Russia.
Production and use of non-renewed natural resources is determined by their natural stock. Known world oil stocks that are available for extraction are estimated now in 150 billion ton. This amount should supply conservation of the modern production level for at least 50 years.
The explored world stock of natural gas constitutes 148,9 trillion m3. They will last for more than 70 years at the current consumption rate.
Russia owns approximately 1/7 of the explored world oil stocks (about 27.5 billion ton) and about 1/3 of the world natural gas stocks (about 48 trillion m3 as of 1996). Before perestroika the exploitation of mineral resources was an exclusive state monopoly. Currently, the entire branch is privatized and oil production is divided among several private companies.
RÀÎ “Gazprom” reigns in the gas industry, where share of state stock is 40%. It supplies to the market 92% of natural gas of the country.
Raw materials produced in the country are partly used within the country and are partly exported. Oil and oil products were the main export product s of the Soviet Union and Russia. Currently Russia exports more than 40% of oil and more than one third of products of its conversion. However, profit from export depends on world price fluctuations. Due to oil price fall in 1986 the Soviet Union lost about 40 billion rubles within three years. After the breakdown of the Soviet Union the oil export became one of the main income parts of the Russian budget. However, the budget of 1998 assumed world oil prices of $115 per ton, but in the beginning of the year the price fell and by mid-March it approached $80 and continues to fall. Gas export also gave an important source of budget income; however, fall of the world oil prices caused falling of gas prices as well.
Oil and natural gas are not only effective energy sources, but also valuable primary chemical products. However, only around 1/16 of gas produced in Russia is used as chemical primary products. Based on the depth of oil conversion, Russia also falls behind the world level: the yield of light petroleum products from one mineral oil ton is about 53% in Russia and more than 90% in the world.
Traditionally, the problems of oil and natural gas export in the USSR and in Russia were more political than economic. The strategy of the branch development and export policy has been determined by the short-term interests of internal and external politics of the country and by interests of its ruling groups. Currently, the country lacks a long-term strategy for utilization of oil and gas resources.
1. Total production of natural gas.
1. Structure of world fuel consumption used for energy production.
2. Oil production in the USSR in 1922 - 1990.
3. Oil production in Russia in 1950 - 1997.
4. Natural gas production in the USSR in 1922 – 1990.
5. Natural gas production in Russia in 1970 – 1996.
6. Average export prices of oil, oil products, and natural gas (1993-96).
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