Ozone crisis and the Montreal Protocol
The reduction of total stratosphere ozone content was noticed for the fist time in early eighties. In the spring of 1986-1991 ozone concentration above Antarctica was lower than its typical spring value during the previous decade by 30-40%, and in 1993 it declined by 60%. The record low concentrations 4 times below the normal concentration were recorded in 1987 and in 1994.
Since that time, reports about observations of “ozone holes” in various parts of the globe appeared more or less regularly. The causes of their origin are not totally clear, but one of possiable - the role of some types of antropogenic impacts. For example, they appear during launching of spacecrafts and other aircrafts. Global decrease of ozone concentration in stratosphere is connected with the growing concentration of chlorine and bromine atoms in the upper atmospheric layers. Their sources are chlorine-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as cooling agents in refrigerators, aerosol sprays, and fire extinguishers.
“Ozone holes” above Russian territory had episodic character in 1970-1980, but by the second half of nineties they became more stable.
The concept of ozone layer protection was declared in 1985 in Vienna. The responsibilities of the countries, which endorsed this concept, were formulated in the document issued by an international convention known as the Vienna Convention on Protecting the Ozone Layer. The USSR joined the convention in 1986. The next step was made in 1987, when 36 countries signed the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, also known as the Montreal Protocol. This convention calls for freezing of production of five types of most widely used CFCs at the level of 1986, and then progressive reduction of their production by 20% by 1993 and by 30% by 1998.
The inner history of ozone-protecting campaign reflects not only the concern about the state of the environment, but also is a reflection of competitive struggle among large chemical corporations. According to estimates of western experts, only several modern leaders of CFCs production will survive on the new “ozone-friendly” market. A few gigantic corporations control not only the patented products, but also the means of their production.
1. Production of ozone-destructing chemicals in Russia.
2. Export of ozone-destructing chemicals from Russia.
3. Quotes for 1997 for Russian industry producing ozone-destructing chemicals referred to the group 1 of the Appendix À of the Montreal Protocol.
Analytical book 2008
Analytical book 2004
Analytical book 2003
Analytical book 2002
Analytical book 2001
Analytical book 2000
Analytical book 1999
Analytical book 1998